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              Rudyard Kipling


              A picture of the author Rudyard Kipling

              Rudyard Kipling (1865 - 1936) lived an extraordinary life. The English novelist, poet, and short story writer particularly beloved for his Just So Stories, was born in Bombay India on December 30, 1865. Though he spent most of his life outside of India, like his parents he thought of himself as "Anglo Indian." He referred to his early days in India as the days of strong light and darkness[1].

              Keeping with custom, Rudyard and his younger sister were returned to England to receive an education when Rudyard was five years old. They were boarded with Captain Pryse Agar Halloway and Mrs. Sarah Halloway, who acted as custodians for British Nationals serving in India. While his sister seemed to be a favorite -- she later married the Halloway's son -- Rudyard was treated harshly at the boarding house. He credited the experience in his autobiography for sparking his literary career,

              "If you cross-examine a child of seven or eight on his day’s doings (specially when he wants to go to sleep) he will contradict himself very satisfactorily. If each contradiction be set down as a lie and retailed at breakfast, life is not easy. I have known a certain amount of bullying, but this was calculated torture — religious as well as scientific. Yet it made me give attention to the lies I soon found it necessary to tell: and this, I presume, is the foundation of literary effort".
              When he was old, and his treatment under the Halloway's was known to his family, his aunt asked why he had not made his suffering known at the time. He recorded: "Children tell little more than animals, for what comes to them they accept as eternally established. Also, badly-treated children have a clear notion of what they are likely to get if they betray the secrets of a prison-house before they are clear of it".

              In 1878, Kipling was admitted to United Services College at Westward Ho!, a college that prepared young men for the military. Lacking the financial resources to continue his education it was decided that Rudyard should return to India. He returned in October, 1882 and began writing at the Civil and Military Gazette. By all accounts, including his own, writing for the paper was a labor of love and the young Kipling was often covered in ink from his writings. In 1887 he was transferred to England. But it was during his time in India that he began to write in earnest and in 1888 he published six collections of short stories.

              In 1889 he left the paper after a dispute, sold the rights to his short story collections, and used the money to travel the world. That trip took him through America and he met Mark Twain before returning to London. He married Carrie Balestier in 1892. They travelled to America and Japan. Then back to America where they settled from 1892 - 1896. The couple enjoyed many happy years and Kipling wrote The Jungle Book, Captains Courageous and some poetry including Gunga Din.

              They returned to England and during the early 1900s the world was treated to a great writer at the peak of career. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1907. He continued to write until the 1930s, dying in 1936 from a perforated ulcer at age 70.


              [1]
              Considering that Rudyard left India when he was five years old, I wondered how and why the place had made such a deep impression upon him that it remained the primary part of his identity throughout his whole life. The phrase "strong light and darkness" had hovered in my mind for several weeks when I chanced upon a two page photograph by Jody MacDonald in the August 2012 issue of National Geographic Magazine.

              Jody MacDonald, The Last of His Kind, National Geographic, August 2012

              For me, the "Anglo Indian" answer comes home when I combine that photograph with this excerpt from his autobiography, "In the afternoon heats before we took our sleep, she (the Portuguese ayah, or nanny) or Meeta (the Hindu bearer, or male attendant) would tell us stories and Indian nursery songs all unforgotten, and we were sent into the dining-room after we had been dressed, with the caution 'Speak English now to Papa and Mamma.' So one spoke 'English', haltingly translated out of the vernacular idiom that one thought and dreamed in." A young boy, in a land of "strong light and darkness" with dedicted story-tellers . . . the mystery of his identity and the origins of The Jungle Book seem to become more clear.

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              Books

              Short Stories

              .007
              A Bank Fraud
              A Conference Of The Powers
              A Deal in Cotton
              A Germ Destroyer
              A Matter of Fact
              An Error In The Fourth Dimension
              An Habitation Enforced
              An Unqualified Pilot
              A Sahibs' War
              As Easy As A.B.C.
              A Second-Rate Woman
              At Howli Thana
              A Trip Across A Continent
              At the Pit's Mouth
              At Twenty-two
              A Walking Delegate
              A Wayside Comedy
              Baa, Baa, Black Sheep
              Below The Mill Dam
              Bertran And Bimi
              Beyond The Pale
              Bitters Neat
              Black Jack
              "Bread Upon The Waters"
              Bubbling Well Road
              By Word Of Mouth
              Consequences
              Cupid's Arrows
              Dray Wara Yow Dee
              False Dawn
              Fatima
              Friendly Brook
              Garm - A Hostage
              Gemini
              Georgie Porgie
              His Chance In Life
              His Majesty The King
              His Wedded Wife
              How the Alphabet Was Made
              How the Camel Got His Hump
              How the First Letter Was Written
              How the Leopard Got His Spots
              How the Rhinoceros Got His Skin
              How the Whale Got His Throat
              In Error
              In Flood Time
              In the House of Suddhoo
              In The Matter Of A Private
              In The Presence
              In The Pride Of His Youth
              In The Same Boat
              Judson And The Empire
              Kidnapped
              Lispeth
              Little Foxes
              Little Tobrah
              Love-o'-Women
              Mary Postgate
              Miss Youghal's Sais
              Moti Guj--Mutineer
              Mrs. Bathurst
              My Own True Ghost Story
              "My Son's Wife"
              My Sunday At Home
              Naboth
              Namgay Doola
              Of Those Called
              On Greenhow Hill
              Only A Subaltern
              On The City Wall
              On The Strength Of A Likeness
              Pig
              Poor Dear Mamma
              Private Learoyd's Story
              Puzzler
              Regulus
              Reingelder And The German Flag
              Rikki-Tikki-Tavi
              Steam Tactics
              "Swept And Garnished"
              The Amir's Homily
              The Army Of A Dream
              The Arrest Of Lieutenant Golightly
              The Beginning of the Armadillos
              The Big Drunk Draf'
              The Bisara Of Pooree
              The Bold 'Prentice
              The Bonds Of Discipline
              The Bridge-Builders
              The Broken Link Handicapped
              The Bronckhorst Divorce-Case
              The Brushwood Boy
              The Burning of the Sarah Sands
              The Butterfly that Stamped
              The Captive
              The Cat that Walked by Himself
              The Children Of The Zodiac
              "The City Of Dreadful Night"
              The Comprehension Of Private Copper
              The Conversion Of Aurelian McGoggin
              The Courting Of Dinah Shadd
              The Crab that Played with the Sea
              The Daughter Of The Regiment
              The Devil And The Deep Sea
              The Dog Hervey
              The Dream Of Duncan Parrenness
              The Drums Of The Fore And Aft
              The Edge Of The Evening
              The Education of Otis Yeere
              The Elephant's Child
              The Enlightenments of Pagett, M.P.
              The Finances Of The Gods
              "The Finest Story in The World"
              The Garden of Eden
              The Gate Of A Hundred Sorrows
              The God From The Machine
              The Head Of The District
              The Hill of Illusion
              The Honours Of War
              The Horse Marines
              The House Surgeon
              The Incarnation Of Krishna Mulvaney
              "Their Lawful Occasions"
              The Judgement of Dungara
              The Knights of the Joyous Venture
              The Lang men O' Larut
              The Limitations Of Pambe Serang
              The Lost Legion
              The Madness Of Private Ortheris
              The Man Who Was
              The Man Who Would be King
              The Mark Of The Beast
              The Mother Hive
              The Mutiny Of The Mavericks
              The Other Man
              The Phantom Rickshaw
              The Pit That They Digged
              The Rescue Of Pluffles
              The Return Of Imray
              The Rout Of The White Hussars
              The Sending of Dana Da
              The Ship That Found Herself
              The Sing-Song of Old Man Kangaroo
              The Solid Muldoon
              The Story Of Muhammad Din
              The Strange Ride of Morrowbie Jukes
              The Swelling of Jordan
              The Taking Of Lungtungpen
              The Tents Of Kedar
              The Three Musketeers
              The Tomb Of His Ancestors
              The Track of a Lie
              The Valley of the Shadow
              The Village That Voted The Earth Was Flat
              The Vortex
              The Wandering Jew
              The Way That He Took
              The World Without
              The Wreck Of The Visigoth
              "They"
              Thou Art the Man
              Three And An Extra
              Through The Fire
              Thrown Away
              To Be Filed For Reference
              To Be Held For Reference
              Tod's Amendment
              Venus Annodomini
              Von Kempelen and his Discovery
              Watches Of The Night
              Wee Willie Winkie
              William The Conqueror
              "Wireless"
              With any Amazement
              Without Benefit Of Clergy
              With The Main Guard
              With The Night Mail: A Story Of 2000 A.D.
              Wressley Of The Foreign Office
              Yoked With An Unbeliever

              Poems

              A Ballad Of Burial
              A Ballad Of Jakkko Hill
              A Bank Fraud (poem)
              A Boy Scouts Patrol Song
              A British-Roman Song
              A Carol
              A Charm
              A Child's Garden
              A Code Of Morals
              A Counting-Out Song
              A Dead Statesman
              A Death-Bed
              A Dedication
              A Dedication To Soldiers Three
              A Departure
              A General Summary
              Akbar's Bridge
              A Legend Of The Foreign Office
              A Legend Of Truth
              Alnaschar And The Oxen
              A Lover's Journey
              An American
              An Astrologer's Song
              A Nativity
              Anchor Song
              Angutivaun Taina
              An Imperial Rescript
              An Old Song
              A Pageant Of Elizabeth
              A Pict Song
              A Pilgrim's Way
              A Preface
              A Recantation
              A Rector's Memory
              A Ripple Song
              Arithmetic On The Frontier
              Army Headquarters
              Arterial
              A School Song
              A Servant When He Reigneth
              A Smuggler's Song
              A Song At Cock-Crow
              A Song In Storm
              A Song In The Desert
              A Song Of Bananas (Brazilian Verses)
              A Song Of French Roads
              A Song Of Kabir
              A Song Of The English
              A Song Of The White Men
              A Song Of Travel
              A Song To Mithras
              As The Bell Clinks
              A St. Helena Lullaby
              A Tale Of Two Cities
              At His Execution
              A Three-Part Song
              A Translation
              A Tree Song
              A Truthful Song
              Ave Imperatrix!
              Azrael's Count
              Back To The Army Again
              Ballad Of Fisher's Boarding-House
              Banquet Night
              Barrack-Room Ballads
              Beast And Man In India
              Before A Midnight Breaks In Storm
              Belts
              Big Steamers
              Bill "Awkins"
              Birds Of Prey March
              Blue Roses
              Bobs
              Boots
              Bridge-Guard In The Karroo
              Brookland Road
              Brown Bess
              Buddha At Kamakura
              Butterflies
              By The Hoof Of The Wild Goat
              By Word Of Mouth (poem)
              Cain And Abel
              Carmen Circulare
              Cells
              Certain Maxims Of Hafiz
              Chant-Pagan
              Chapter Headings
              Chapter Headings - Just So Stories
              Chapter Headings - Kim
              Chapter Headings - Life?s Handicap
              Chapter Headings - Many Inventions
              Chapter Headings - The Light That Failed
              Chapter Headings - The Naulahka
              Chartres Windows
              Chil?s Song
              Cholera Camp
              Christmas in India
              Cities And Thrones And Powers
              Cleared
              Cold Iron
              Columns
              Common Form
              Commonplaces
              Contradictions
              Covenent
              Cruisers
              Cuckoo Song
              Cupid's Arrows (poem)
              Dane-Geld
              Danny Deever
              Darzee's Chaunt
              Death Of A Believer
              Dedication
              Dedication From ?Barrack Room Ballads?
              Deep Sea Cables
              Delilah
              Dinah In Heaven
              Dirge of Dead Sisters
              Divided Destinies
              Doctors
              Eddis Service
              Edgehill Fight
              En-Dor
              Englands Answer
              Epitaphs Of The War
              Et Dona Ferentes
              Evarra And His Gods
              Evil Land
              False Dawn (poem)
              Farewell And Adieu...
              Fastness
              Follow Me "ome"
              For All We Have And Are
              Ford o Kabul River
              For To Admire
              Four-Feet
              Fox-Hunting
              France
              Frankies Trade
              From Lyden?s ?Irenius? - Act III. Sc. II.
              From The Masjid-Al-Aqsa Of Sayyid Ahmed (Wahabi)
              Fuzzy-Wuzzy
              Gallios Song
              Gehazi
              General Joubert
              Gentlmen-Rankers
              Gertrude's Prayer
              Gethsemane
              Giffen's Debt
              Gipsy Vans
              Gods Of The East
              Gow?s Watch : Act II. Scene 2.
              Gow?s Watch : Act IV. Scene 4.
              Gow?s Watch : Act V. scene 3
              Great-Heart
              Gunga Din
              Hadramauti
              Half-Ballad of Waterval
              Harp Song Of The Dane Women
              Have You News Of My Boy Jack?
              Helen All Alone
              Heriots Ford
              His Apologies
              His Wedded Wife (poem)
              How Fear Came
              How It All Began
              How the Camel Got His Hump (poem)
              How The Leopard Got His Spots (poem)
              How The Rhinoceros Got His Skin (poem)
              How The Whale Got His Throat (poem)
              Hunting-Song Of The Seeonee Pack
              Hymn Before Action
              Hymn Of Breaking Strain
              Hymn Of The Triumphant Airman
              Hymn To Physical Pain
              If
              I Keep Six Honest..
              In Error (poem)
              In Springtime
              In The House Of Suddhoo (poem)
              In The Matter Of One Compass
              In the Neolithic Age
              James I
              Jane's Marriage
              Jobson?s Amen
              Jubal And Tubal Cain
              Justice
              Just So Stories (poems)
              Kaa?s Hunting
              Kaspar'?s Song In ?Varda?
              Kim
              King Henry VII And The Shipwrights
              Kitchener's School
              Lady Geraldines Hardship
              La Nuit Blanche
              Late Came The God
              LEnvoi
              LEnvoi to "Lifes Handicap"
              Letting In The Jungle
              Lichtenberg
              Lispeth (poem)
              Lollius
              London Stone
              Loot
              Lord Roberts
              Lukannon
              Macdonoughs Song
              Mandalay
              Many Inventions
              Mary, Pity Women!
              Mary's Son
              McAndrew's Hymn
              Memories
              Merrow Down
              Mesopotamia
              Mine Sweepers
              Morning Song In The Jungle
              Mother o Mine
              Mowgli's Brothers
              Mowgli's Song
              Mowgli's Song Against People
              Mulholland's Contract
              Municipal
              My Boy Jack
              My Father's Chair
              My Ladys Law
              My New-Cut Ashler
              My Rival
              Naaman'?s Song
              Natural Theology
              Neighbours
              Non Nobis Domine!
              Norman And Saxon
              Ode - Melbourne Shrine Of Remembrance
              Old Fighting-Men
              Old Mother Laidinwool
              One Viceroy Resigns
              Oonts
              Our Fathers Also
              Our Fathers Of Old
              Our Lady Of The Sackcloth
              Our Lady Of The Snows
              Outsong In The Jungle
              Pagett, M.P.
              Pan In Vermont
              Parade-Song Of The Camp-Animals
              Pharaoh And The Sergeant
              Philadelphia
              Piet
              Pig (poem)
              Pink Dominoes
              Poison Of Asps (A Brazilian Snake-Farm) (Brazilian Verses)
              Poor Honest Men
              Poseidons Low
              Possibilities
              Preface
              Prelude
              Prelude To Departmental Ditties And Other Verses
              Private Ortheris?s Song
              Prophets At Home
              Public Waste
              Pucks Song
              Quiquern
              Rahere
              Rebirth
              Recessional
              Red Dog
              Rhodes Memorial, Table Mountain
              Ride To Kandahar
              Rikki-Tikki-Tavi (poem)
              Rimini
              Rimmon
              Road-Song Of The Bandar-Log
              Romulus and Remus
              Route Marchin
              Russia To The Pacifists
              Samuel Pepys
              Sappers
              Screw-Guns
              Seal Lullaby
              Sepulchral
              Sestina Of The Tramp-Royal
              Seven Watchmen
              Shillin A Day
              Shiv And The Grasshopper
              Sir Richard's Song
              Snarleyow
              Soldier An Sailor Too
              Soldier, Soldier
              Song Of Diego Valdez
              Song Of Seventy Horses
              Song Of The Dynamo (Brazilian Verses)
              Song Of The Engines
              Song Of The Fifth River
              Song Of The Galley-Slaves
              Song Of The Men'?s Side
              Song Of The Old Guard
              Song Of The Red War-Boat
              Song Of The Wise Children
              Songs Of Seventy Horses
              South Africa
              Stellenbosh
              Study Of An Elevation, In Indian Ink
              Such As In Ships (Brazilian Verses)
              Sussex
              Tarrant Moss
              That Day
              The Absent-Minded Beggar
              The Advertisement
              The American Rebellion
              The Answer
              The Anvil
              The Appeal
              The Ballad Of Ahmed Shah
              The Ballad Of Boh Da Thone
              The Ballad Of Bolivar
              The Ballad Of East And West
              The Ballad Of Fisher's Boarding-House
              The Ballad Of Jakko Hill
              The Ballad Of Minepit Shaw
              The Ballad Of The "Bolivar"
              The Ballad Of The Cars
              The Ballad Of The "Clampherdown"
              The Ballad Of The King's Jest
              The Ballad Of The Kings Mercy
              The Ballad Of The Red Earl
              The Bee-Boy's Song
              The Bees And The Flies
              The Beginner
              The Beginning Of The Armadillos (poem)
              The Beginnings
              The Bell Buoy
              The Bells And Queen Victoria
              The Benefactors
              The Betrothed
              The Birthright
              The Bonfires
              The Bother
              The Braggart
              The Broken Men
              The Bronckhurst Divorce Case (poem)
              The Burden
              The Burial
              The Captive (poem)
              The Cat that Walked By Himself (poem)
              The Centaurs
              The Changelings
              The Children
              The Children's Song
              The Choice (The American Spirit Speaks)
              The City Of Brass
              The City Of Sleep
              The Clerks And The Bells
              The Coastwise Lights
              The Coiner
              The Comforters
              The Consolations Of Memory
              The Conundrum Of The Workshops
              The Covenant
              The Crab that Played with the Sea (poem)
              The Craftsman
              The Cure
              The Dawn Wind
              The Days Work
              The Dead King
              The Declaration Of London
              The Decline Of The West
              The Deep-Sea Cables
              The Derelict
              The Destroyers
              The Disciple
              The Dove of Dacca
              The Dutch In The Medway
              The Dying Chauffeur
              The Dykes
              The Eathen
              The Egg-Shell
              The Elephant's Child (poem)
              The English Flag
              The English Way
              The Exiles Line
              The Expert
              The Explanation
              The Explorer
              The Fabulists
              The Fairies Siege
              The Fall Of Jock Gillespie
              The Feet Of The Young Men
              The Female Of The Specie
              The Files
              The Fires
              The First Chantey
              The Flight
              The Floods
              The Flowers
              The Four Angels
              The Four Points
              The French Wars
              The Friends
              The Galley-Slave
              The Gift Of The Sea
              The Gipsy Trail
              The Glory Of The Garden
              The Gods Of The Copybook Headings
              The Grave Of The Hundred Head
              The Greek National Anthem
              The Heritage
              The Holy War
              The Hour Of The Angel
              The Houses
              The Hyaenas
              The Hymn To Physical Pain
              The Idiot Boy
              The Instructor
              The Inventor
              The Irish Guards
              The Islanders
              The Jacket
              The Jester
              The Juggler's Song
              The Jungle Books (poem)
              The Junk And The Dhow
              The Justices Tale
              The King
              The King And The Sea
              The Kingdom
              The Kings Ankus
              The King's Job
              The King's Pilgrimage
              The King's Task
              The Ladies
              The Lament Of The Border Cattle Thief
              The Land
              The Landau
              The Last Chantey
              The Last Department
              The Last Lap
              The Last Ode
              The Last Of The Light Brigade
              The Last Rhyme Of True Thomas
              The Last Suttee
              The Law of the Jungle
              The Legend Of Evil
              The Legend Of Mirth
              The Legend Of The Foreign Office
              The Legends Of Evil
              The Lesson
              The Light That Failed
              The Liner Shes A Lady
              The Long Trail
              The Looking-Glass (A Country Dance)
              The Lost Legion (poem)
              The Lovers Litany
              The Love Song Of Har Dyal
              The Lowestoft Boat
              The Man Who Could Write
              The Mare's Nest
              The Married Man
              The "Mary Gloster"
              The Masque Of Plenty
              The Master-Cook
              The Men That Fought At Minden
              The Merchantmen
              The Miracle Of Purun Bhagat
              The Miracles
              The Moon Of Other Days
              The Moral
              The Morning Song Of The Jungle
              The Mother-Lodge
              The Mother's Son
              The Native-Born
              The Naulahka
              The Necessitarian
              The New Knighthood
              The North Sea Patrol
              The Nurses
              The Nursing Sister
              The Oldest Song
              The Old Issue
              The Old Men
              The Only Son
              The Open Door (Brazilian Verses)
              The Other Man (poem)
              The Outlaws
              The Overland Mail
              The Palace
              The Parting Of The Columns
              The Peace Of Dives
              The Penalty
              The Pirates In England
              The Playmate
              The Plea Of The Simla Dancers
              The Portent
              The Post That Fitted
              The Power of the Dog
              The Prairie
              The Prayer
              The Prayer Of Miriam Cohen
              The Press
              The Pro-Consuls
              The Prodigal Son
              The Progress Of The Spark
              The Puzzler
              The Queen Of Fairy Land
              The Queen's Men
              The Quesion
              The Quest
              The Rabbi's Song
              The Recall
              The Reeds Of Runnymede
              The Reformers
              The Return
              The Return Of The Children
              The Rhyme Of The Three Captains
              The Rhyme Of The Three Sealers
              The River's Tale
              The Roman Centurions Song
              The Rout Of The White Hussars (poem)
              The Rowers
              The Runes Of Welands Sword
              The Runners
              The Run Of The Downs
              The Rupaiyat Of Omar Kalvin
              The Sack Of The Gods
              The Sacrifice Of Er-Heb
              The Scholars
              The Sea And The Hills
              The Sea-Wife
              The Second Voyage
              The Secret Of The Machines
              The Sergeant's Weddin
              The Servant When He Reigneth
              The Service Man
              The Settler
              The Ship That Found Herself (poem)
              The Shut-Eye Sentry
              The Sing-Song Of Old Man Kangaroo (poem)
              The Song At Cock-Crow
              The Song Of Diego Valdez
              The Song Of Seven Cities
              The Song Of The Banjo
              The Song Of The Cities
              The Song Of The Dead
              The Song Of The Little Hunter
              The Song Of The Old Guard
              The Song Of The Sons
              The Song Of The Women
              The Songs Of The Lathes
              The Sons of Martha
              The Spies March
              The Spring Running
              The Storm Cone
              The Story Of Ung
              The Story Of Uriah
              The Stranger
              The Supplication Of The Black Aberdeen
              The Supports - (Song Of The Avaiting Seraphs.)
              The Survival
              The Thorkilds Song
              The Thousandth Man
              The Three-Decker
              The Threshold
              The Totem
              The Tour
              The Trade
              The Truce Of The Bear
              The Two Cousins
              The Two-Sided Man
              The Ubique
              The Undertakers Horse
              The Vampire
              The Verdicts
              The Veterans
              The Vineyard
              The Virginity
              The Voortrekker
              The Wage-Slaves
              The Waster
              The Watcher
              The Way Through The Woods
              The Wet Litany
              The White Man's Burden
              The White Seal
              The Widow At Windsor
              The Widower
              The Widow's Party
              The Winners
              The Wishing-Caps
              The Young British Soldier
              Things and the Man
              Thorkild'?s Song
              Three Friends
              Thrown Away (poem)
              Tiger - Tiger!
              Tin Fish
              To A Lady, Persuading Her To A Car
              Tods Amendment (poem)
              Together
              To James Whitcomb Riley
              Tomlinson
              Tommy
              To Motorists
              Toomai Of The Elephants
              To T. A.
              To The City Of Bombay
              To the Companions
              To The True Romance
              To The Unknown Goddess
              To Thomas Atkins
              To Wolcott Balestier
              Troopin
              Two Kopjes
              Two Months
              Two Races (Brazilian Verses)
              Ubique
              Ulster
              Untimely
              Verses On Games
              Very Many People
              We And They
              What Happened
              What The People Said
              When Earth's Last Picture Is Painted
              When Omer Smote Is Bloomin Lyre
              When The Great Ark
              When The Journey Was Intended To The City
              White Horses
              Wilful Missing
              With Drake In The Tropics
              With Scindia To Delhi
              Yet At The Last
              You Must nt Swim...
              Zion

              Anton Chekhov
              Nathaniel Hawthorne
              Susan Glaspell
              Mark Twain
              Edgar Allan Poe
              Mary E. Wilkins Freeman
              Herman Melville
              Stephen Leacock
              Kate Chopin
              Bj?rnstjerne Bj?rnson
              二四六天天好彩(944cc)246天